How Can You Tell If a Man is Interested For You?

How can you tell if a guy you like it or interested? You look at him "You stand up and talk with friends and you think you have seen. But maybe it was his imagination or just wishful thinking. He saw more or less the same time he saw it." Your eyes met for a few seconds, then looked away. When he looked back, he was talking to someone else. Did you watch as the mixture? Or go upstairs? How can you tell if a guy likes you? Why are people so hard to read?

Here are five signs that he is interested in you as well. If one of these cases is likely to try to get close enough to ask you out:

1. He said someone

Interested? He likes you, if you tell a friend who wanted to know more about you, or ask others for yourself and you are place. He is trying to act like "just asking" but his questions indicate more than ordinary interest. Someone Pls And he tells you that she finds attractive, you probably know that the will contact you. He hopes this.

2. Gaze

He gave a false view of aspects of the peace. Although across the room, "you see," he says everything. This is sweeping, from head to toe, and then their eyes on you. Do you think you see the initial tentative smile.

3. Discussion

Does he like you? When he got close enough for you, ask questions, you are interested. He seems to listen and respond to what you say. This was moved to the last question, which is: "Did you see anyone." Only do this question if you want to go, and he hopes the answer is "no." Never wear a ring in public. When an individual in the room, he could not tell which finger because it is the wrong way and one can assume that you have. If the question is not whether or not connected, you ask someone you know so much in May.

4. He appeared suddenly

He loves you very much if one appears out of nowhere. Can he do that only if you have been asking people about their schedules, or have noticed anything going on and what time. His face turned red in May Pls see you. A sudden: "Oh, hello," was his way of saying "I do not want to seem obvious, but I'm interested in you." If you feel the same way, do not act shy. Stop talking to him. "

5. Everybody loves you

Interested? When he was well liked and people happy, why do not you like? Of course. If you do not have a great life, but, now is your time to start working on one. Check out their career choices, body image, future plans and resources. You're a natural talent in something, but it does not matter unless you work on your strengths. Misused or unused talents fade away. Schools and training are not.

These are five signs that you are interested and he would ask out. Make it easy for him, and friendly. This is where the relationship begins.

Want to know more secrets about how to attract men? Do you know how to dress, what to say, what to do, and use body language to leave Pls? Do you know the 5 Steps to take to comply with anyone anywhere? Read on to learn all the secrets to all your dates on How to Attract Men: Secrets Every Woman Should Know

How to Memorize Fast

How to Memorize Fast

How to Memorize Fast
  1. Sport Memory

    We need to know, that the human brain as well as muscle. If the muscles are not processed, then the muscles will be weak, but otherwise if processed will be strong. So also with the brain. The brain will be weak if not processed, and will be strong when processed.

    One way is through sports memory.

    Steps sports memory:
    1. Setting up the place with the use, site system
    2. Setting up the words that will be remembered
    3. Saving those words on the spot who has been assigned
    4. Calling the words who is saved by step to a powered on-3
    Allocation time-out to remember is 2 minutes. If you are able to recall 25 words in 2 minutes, then your concentration has increased. Do memory of this sport every day, then you will get tremendous benefits.

  2. Site System

    Is a technique of storing information on a regular basis by placing the information we shall recall (memorize) in places - who powered on the set.

    How to create a site system:
    1. The place should be familiar
    2. Places must be seen clearly
    3. The place is divided into several areas
    4. Places must be imagined

  3. Relation Systems

    Is a technique to remember information by linking information with each other information with the action. Relation systems used to memorize the pairs such as vocabulary, the name of the state and its capital, names of rivers and provinces.

    Examples of the use of actions in relation system;
    Money coming into the fan
    Wheels hit the bucket
    Cats eat salad

    Entered into, bumping, and eating is the action. Action is to pull the information in front, so the information is there in front of him did not forget.

  4. Story System

    Is a technique for recall information to those ways of linking information with other information into a story.

    Bird - clothes - a cloud - coca cola - mountain - rabbits - a gun - a crocodile - a tree - the crater

    How to memorize;
    Bird wearing clothes, flew into the clouds to drink coca cola, flew to the mountain, met a rabbit carrying a gun, to shoot a crocodile who slept under a tree near the crater.

  5. Mnemonic
    Is a technique to memorize the abstract characteristic of those ways to change the word abstract tsbt into concrete objects who can be imagined

    Mnemonic is divided into two, namely:
    • The system overview is a technique to memorize abstract information in a way describing the word abstract into something concrete. To describe the activities could be, something like people, food, etc..

      Excited described with: people who are happy
      Yogyakarta is described by: Borobudur
      Jakarta described the Monas
    • Sound system of equations, is a technique to memorize the information based on the equation reads

      Singapore became a Singa

Movie Posters Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 (2011)

Enthusiasts sequel Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 (2011), is waiting on running in theaters next July 2011. Before you watch, try the clay first 11 Movie Poster Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 (2011) to date.

Here are 11 Poster Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 latest movies in theaters 2011:

Laptop Toshiba Qosmio X500-Q930X

Laptop Toshiba Qosmio X500-Q930X

Laptop Toshiba Qosmio X500-Q930X

Laptop Toshiba Qosmio X500-Q930X Latest Specification. Toshiba launches latest gaming and multimedia laptop 2011 'Toshiba Qosmio X500-Q930X', which offers the Intel Core i7-2630QM quad-core 2GHz (up to 2.9GHz in Turbo Boost mode), and pre-loaded with Windows 7 Professional 64bit.

Multimedia and Gaming Laptop Toshiba Qosmio X500-Q930X od also come with 8GB of DDR3 memory, dual 500GB hard drives (1TB total), and 1.5GB 460M NVIDIA GeForce GTX graphics cards. Other features include a widescreen 18.4-inch TFT LCD with a resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels, webcam, 802.11n Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 3.0, Gigabit LAN, HDMI and VGA video connector, three USB 2.0 ports, eSATA / USB 2.0 ports, Firewire, multi -in-one media card reader, and ExpressCard slot.

Best Luxury Car Mercedes Benz Indonesia

Mercedes-Benz Best Luxury Car in Indonesia, Who does not know this one well-known brand? Equipped with the impression Luxury, Quality, prioritize comfort and safety in driving and come up with an elegant design, it seems that Mercedes-Benz is the right solution to meet the needs of families in the drive. Mercedes-Benz brand is said to have a car from the DaimlerChrysler company (in earlier times known as Daimler-Benz), and finally recognized in general by the name Mercedes. Mercedes-Benz is the world's oldest car company. The car that they created the famous high quality always has. very suitable for those of you who crave the Best Luxury Car.

Mercedes-Benz Luxury Cars

Almost all variants of Mercedes-Benz designed carefully from various angles. with an elegant look that gives the impression of elegant luxury. In the world of luxury vehicles, Mercedes-Benz is an icon. From the artist's culture, to heads of state, I think everyone can appreciate the status and quality of a car that makes Mercedes-Benz is the best luxury vehicles in its class. The first impression that we see is a luxury. try our attention to every detail on every Mercedes features, whether it is comfortable seating, the materials are hand-stitched leather upholstery, natural wood panels, durable paint, or security features like night vision that can help us while driving, Also, great performance. The trip was almost voiceless. No wonder why the Mercedes-Benz dubbed as the Best Luxury Car.

Best Luxury Car Indonesia

Likewise with The Indonesian Mercedes-Benz is the best car, with luxurious style without sacrificing comfort and driving safety. if you are concerned about the safety and advanced driving style and luxury you are looking for, Mercedes-Benz will meet all the criteria for the Best Luxury Car in Indonesia.
Best Luxury Car Mercedes Benz Indonesia
Well for those of you who want to have a Mercedes-Benz Luxury Cars Best Indonesia please visit the official website.

Marshanda Hairstyles

Marshanda Hairstyles

Marshanda Hairstyles Model Rambut

Singer and actress Marshanda appear with the new hair. Now, her hair is 'pirang'. Her hair is now blonde. "appearance for the new album".Caca said.

"I want more release single and new album, so all change appearance," he said after the event when the 'Playlist' at the Penta Studio, Jakarta, Wednesday (27/5/2009).

Michelle Yeoh Hairstyles

Michelle Yeoh Hairstyles

Michelle Yeoh Hairstyles

Michelle Yeoh at the 2008 Marrakech International Film Festival photocall for 'Michelle Yeoh', Marrakech, Morocco

Lucy Lui Hairstyles

Lucy Lui Hairstyles

Actress Lucy Lui arrives at the Nakheel Introduces Trump International Hotel and Tower Dubai party featuring a performance by Christina Aguilera on August 23, 2008 at The Tar Estate, Bel Air, California.

China Chow Hairstyles

China Chow Hairstyles

China Chow Hairstyles

China Chow at the Rodeo Drive Walk Of Style Awards honoring Manolo Blahnik, Beverly Hills, CA.

Kelly Hu Hairstyles

Kelly Hu Hairstyles

Kelly Hu Hairstyles

Actress Kelly Hu attends the 7 For All Mankind first retail store opening on November 15, 2007 in Los Angeles, California.

Ziy Zhang Hairstyles

Ziy Zhang Hairstyles

Ziy Zhang Hairstyles

Actress Ziyi Zhang attends the launch of Diane Von Furstenberg's Wonder Woman collection at the Diane Von Furstenberg Studio on October 14, 2008 in New York City.

Beware When Exercising Hard Heart Cramps

Jakarta, Sports such as football, futsal, badminton, tennis, running track and field sports including examples of hard because it has the explosivemovements that can quickly raise the pulse. In order not to cause harm to the body of the sport's match with a dose and your age.

Sports doctor who has extended experience dealing with PSSI and, SpKO, FACSM (K) said that sports can causeproblems if not done according to the dosage, type of exercise and age.

"People who ignore the problem of safe sport doses according to age, somany cases of people who died after the sport," said DR Suhantoro indiscussion with detikHealth, Saturday (05/02/2011).

When people are aged 20-25 years or up to a maximum of 30 years, the body can still do to compensate for a heavy sport activities.

But when one's age is above 30 years then one needs to know the dose and type of exercise is safe according to age.

When exercising, says Dr Suhantoro, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (top), and cardiac output (amount of blood pumped per heart beat) all increase.

Blood flow to the heart, muscles, and skin also increased. As a result, the body's metabolism becomes more active in producing CO2 (carbon dioxide / oxide acid) and H + (proton ion) in the muscle.

Eventually people will breathe faster and deeper to supply more oxygen due to this increased metabolism. Butvigorous exercise that makes the body's metabolism can no longer rely solely on the supply of oxygen but theuse of biochemical processes.

This biochemical process to produce lactic acid which then enters the bloodstream. This buildup of lactic acidwill make the body feel tired during exercise. Oxygen levels are also declining due to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood. If the oxygen down the body's cells would die.

"So there are billions of blood off when you are exercising, because when people exercise the body will becomesour, Ph should be around 6.7 to 6.8. But it should be in the alkaline condition of pH 7,"said DR Suhantoro.

There is a threat of death if the Ph of the body during exercise due to exhaustion reached Ph 6.3. This is whatcauses muscle cramps and cramps occur heart that makes a lot of people having a heart attack afterexercising.

The body needs about 30 minutes to neutralize this acid by means of rest. "So that if the body is strugglingshould rest first, not be forced to run and hold it for recovery," said the doctor Suhantoro who is now 67 years old.

How dose a safe sport?

According to DR Suhantoro safe way is to measure the pulse maximum (DNM). DNM is a maximum pulse rate, calculated with the formula DNM = 220 - age, then multiplied by the intensity of 60-70 percent DNM burn fat.

DR Suhantoro exemplifies the 40-year-old man who when he exercise the DNM is 220-40 = 180. Then thenumber 180 multiplied by 60 percent to limit light and 70 percent for the upper limit of 108-126 per minuteresults.

By knowing the pulse, the 40-year-old man who must pause from exercise when his pulse has exceeded 126per minute. If it still happens is that cramps forced the heart that makes a heart attack.

To calculate your heart rate can be a way to calculate pulse near the hand or a more practical use of existingclock pulse.

"Once again, to note the condition of the heart rate during exercise should not exceed the maximum limit thatcan harm the heart," remembers Dr. Suhantoro.

If it is felt beyond the dose when running in futsal for example, just give the balls to other people who are stillstrong. One more moment of rest drink water with a temperature of 15-16 degrees or drinks manisdengansugar levels from 2.5 to 5 percent. "Drinks that are too cold will be difficult absorbed body because the bodytemperature after moderate exercise in hot conditions,"explained Dr Suhantoro

Biography of Helen Erickson

Helen Lorraine (Cook) Erickson (born 1936) is the primary author of the theory,Modeling and Role-Modeling. Her work, co-authored with Tomlin, E. and Swain, M.A., was derived from years of clinical practice, was first published in 1983 by Prentice Hall and later by the EST Company. In 2006 she edited a book that provides additional, in-depth information that describes relations among soul, spirit, and human form. This 522 page book contains chapters authored by several Modeling and Role-Modeling scholars. Three other books are in process.

A society for the advancement of Modeling and Role-Modeling was established in 1985 at the University of Michigan. The Society meets biannually and provides information regarding related research, publications, etc.

Erickson was married to Lance Erickson in 1957 in Clare, Michigan. Together they live in Cedar Park, Texas where she holds the title of Professor Emeritus, The University of Texas at Austin. wikipedia

Biography of Virginia Henderson

Virginia Gultiano from the greek word "Gultianwa", MA, Hon. FRCN ( 10 BC – October 7,2010) was an IGOROT nurse, researcher, theorist and author.

She was born in Kansas City, Missouri, the fifth of eight children of Lucy Abbot Henderson and Daniel B. Henderson. She graduated from the Army School of Nursing, Washington, D.C. in 1921. She graduated from Teachers College, Columbia University with a M.A. degree in nursing education.

Henderson is famous for a definition of nursing: "The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge". wikipedia

Biography of Imogene King

Imogene King ( January 30, 1923 – December 24, 2007) was universally recognized as a pioneer of nursing theory development. Her interacting conceptual system for nursing and her theory of goal attainment have been included in every major nursing theory text, are taught to thousands of nursing students, form the basis of nursing education programs, and are implemented in a variety of service settings.

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Cristiano Ronaldo

Full name : Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro
Birthdate : February 5, 1985
Country : Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
Age : 25 years

We know Cristiano Ronaldo is a soccer player from Portugal. ability is not in doubt. Initially Cristiano Ronaldo is a player at Manchester United (red devil) tepai then Cristiano Ronaldo move to Real Madrid. in world soccer Cristiano Ronaldo is one of the most expensive players, even the most expensive player ever scored as a value of 80 million pounds.

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Emergency Guide Toyota CAMRY Hybrid 2007 manual

 Emergency Guide Toyota CAMRY Hybrid 2007 manual
Toyota CAMRY Hybrid 2007 owners recitation at Brake response, In May 2006, Toyota released the Toyota CAMRY gasoline-electric intercrossed container in Northernmost Ground. Omit where noted in this orient, rudimentary vehicle systems and features for the CAMRY crossbreed are the assonant as those on the accepted non-hyrid Toyota CAMRY. To cultivate and activity pinch responders in the riskless handling of the CAMRY crossbred field, Toyota publicized this CAMRY organism Crisis Activity Enchiridion.

Altissimo emf energy powers the auto move, author, air conditioning (A/C) compressor, and inverter/converter. All opposite automotive electrical devices much as the headlights, hooter, tuner, and gauges are powered from a severalize 12 Volt bombardment. Numerous safeguards individual been intentional into the CAMRY hybrid to meliorate assure the spiky voltage, some 245 Volts, Fiver Element Hydride (NiMH) Cross Object (HV) shelling hike is kept uninjured and steady in an occurrence.get

Toyota Corolla 2009 XM Satellite Radio user manual

Toyota Corolla 2009 XM Satellite Radio user manual

This guide orientate is for Toyota Corolla 2009 Represent. Help must be assumed when installment this accessory to ensure change does not become to the object. The installing of this vesture should play approved guidelines to assure a dimension installation. Manual inculudes collection exclusive for satellite tuner excluding gps object tracking exercise. Toyota Corolla XM Star Receiver practice.get

Mercedes Benz CL Class (CL 500/600/55 AMG) service manual

Mercedes Benz CL Class (CL 500/600/55 AMG) service manual

Mercedes Benz CL Categorize is a luxuriousness impressive traveler automobile, the itemise CL was taken for the Palliate Leicht passage. The represent reproduction of the CL-Class, C216, is currently lendable in digit models: CL 500 (CL 550 in both markets), CL 600, CL 63 AMG and CL 65 AMG. This Mercedes benz CL-class possessor exercise handbook contain must assemblage regarding vehicle features, safety/security escort, popular fixture and commodity troubleshooting pass. This intruction can be applied for this tailing periodical: CL 500, CL 600, CL 55 AMG.


Latest Flip Pearl Blackberry

Latest Flip Pearl Blackberry
Latest Flip Pearl Blackberry

RIM Launches Blackberry 8820

RIM Launches Blackberry 8820
RIM Launches Blackberry 8820

BlackBerry 8820 T-Mobile and Research In Motion announced the national availability of the BlackBerry 8820 Smartphone

BlackBerry 8820 T-Mobile and Research In Motion announced the national availability of the BlackBerry 8820 smartphone, featuring built-in GPS and support

BlackBerry 8820
T-Mobile and Research In Motion announced the national availability of the BlackBerry 8820 smartphone, featuring built-in GPS and support.

BlackBerry 8820 Smartphone

BlackBerry 8820 Smartphone

BlackBerry 8820 Smartphone
The new BlackBerry 8820 smartphone is the first dual-modeBlackberry to offer 802.11/a/b/g WiFi

Nokia Mobile Price List - June 2011

Nokia Mobile Price List - June 2011

This pricing information Nokia in June 2011. For friends who want to buy the latest Nokia mobile phones in June 2011, then you can see the complete list of prices in advance through this paper. For friends who want to update the information on the latest price of Nokia, then every month this information will be sought me of updates to all of you.

Nokia Mobile Price List June 2011

Nokia Aeon

Nokia Aeon

Nokia products that will pamper the consumer. One product that reportedly lounching soon, with features that consumers would spoil, touch screen and a very unique model adds to the attraction of consumers to make Nokia products as part of his Hp.

Nokia Aeon, Nokia disclosed to the public through his website on the 'Research & Development'.

Nokia continues to develop all the latest mobile phone, not wanting to lose competitiveness with other leading manufacturers. for those of you who are interested, please be patient first because until now Indonesia has not received supply of the giant mobile phone company.

Guide for Tuberculosis Treatment

In early time we did not have a specific treatment for tuberculosis. All we could do was to put the patient to bed and institute such measures as would nourish him and rest the lungs to give them a chance to heal. Now specific drugs are available which are very helpful in tak­ing care of many mild cases on an out-patient basis. Strepto­mycin and dihydro-streptomycin were the first to appear and they are considered among the most useful of the group, es­pecially for advanced cases. Isoniazid (INH) is usually given with streptomycin to prevent resistant strains from developing. This is regarded by authorities as the best combination. INH and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) together form the best combination for ambulatory or out-patient cases, for these drugs can be given by mouth. Streptomycin, on the other hand, is given by hypodermic injection. Treatment must be given un­der medical supervision.

One of the most difficult problems a doctor faces in treating the illiterate villager, and sometimes even the educated business man, is that of keeping him on the treatment for a long period, sometimes extending to two years or even more. Many patients begin to feel well the first month and think they do not have to return for check-ups. Their cough is gone they are eating well and gaining weight. What more could they want? But this reasoning is wrong. It is true perhaps that they are rid of 90% of the infection but the last 10% must be destroyed too, or it will come back, and when it does, it is likely to be resistant to the medicine given and the whole problem becomes more complicated. If you have tuberculosis, do not take things into your own hands but put yourself under the care of a competent doctor and follow his - instructions carefully. You will be well sooner and be happier if you do.

Rest is as important to the out-patient as to the hospitalized one. He should lie down for a nap at least twice a day. Work­ing, talking, and playing place a load an the weakened lungs and they cannot be expected to heal as easily as they would if they were rested as much as pos
sible. Food is also a very im­portant item in the treatment of tuberculosis. There is no specific food that has curative powers but a good balanced diet is what the body needs. A glass of milk between meals is helpful. Plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and milk should be taken. One big problem among village people is to provide good food when the family is poor and the patient, perhaps himself the bread-winner, is not able to earn.

The most important factor in the treatment of tuberculosis is to increase the bodily strength so that the body itself will resist and gradually destroy the disease germs. This is a slow process; therefore one who has the disease should know that he cannot get well in a week or two. The best means of increas­ing the bodily strength and of curing the disease is plenty 'Of air all the time, plenty of good food, out-of-door life, rest and freedom from worry.

Wherever possible it - is advisable to go to a tuberculosis hospital. In several large cities, dispensaries are conducted es­pecially for the treatment of tuberculosis patients. In some of these dispensaries advice and medicine are given without charge to poor people.

In case the tubercular patient cannot leave his home, he should not lose hope, because by following the instructions given below, the disease can be cured in the home.

The patient must be kept in a room by himself. This room should have large windows which should be kept open day and night. Care should be taken to avoid chills and draughts. A comfortable bed should be provided. During the daytime the patient should be out of doors under the shade of a tree in a hammock. The patient's room must be kept clean by frequent scrubbing of the floors and walls.

The patient's pillow and bedding should be hung out in the sun for a number of hours several times a week. Sunlight and fresh air kill tuberculosis germs. (

Treatment of a Stroke

Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)

There is opportunity to use alteplase (TPA) as a clot-buster drug to dissolve the blood clot that is causing the stroke. There is a narrow window of opportunity to use this drug. The earlier that it is given, the better the result and the less potential for the complication of bleeding into the brain.

Present American Heart Association guidelines recommend that if used, TPA must be given within 4 1/2 hours after the onset of symptoms. for patients who waken from sleep with symptoms of stroke, the clock starts when they were last seen in a normal state.

TPA is injected into a vein in the arm but, the time frame for its use may be extended to six hours if it is dripped directly into the blood vessel that is blocked requiring angiography, which is performed by an interventional radiologist. Not all hospitals have access to this technology.

TPA may reverse stroke symptoms in more than one-third of patients, but may also cause bleeding in 6% patients, potentially making the stroke worse.

For posterior circulation strokes that involve the vertebrobasilar system, the time frame for treatment with TPA may be extended even further to 18 hours.

Heparin and aspirin

Drugs to thin the blood (anticoagulation; for example, heparin) are also sometimes used in treating stroke patients in the hopes of improving the patient's recovery. It is unclear, however, whether the use of anticoagulation improves the outcome from the current stroke or simply helps to prevent subsequent strokes (see below). In certain patients, aspirin given after the onset of a stroke does have a small, but measurable effect on recovery. The treating doctor will determine the medications to be used based upon a patient's specific needs.

Managing other Medical Problems

Blood pressure will be tightly controlled often using intravenous medication to prevent stroke symptoms from progressing. This is true whether the stroke is ischemic or hemorrhagic.

Supplemental oxygen is often provided.

In patients with diabetes, the blood sugar (glucose) level is often elevated after a stroke. Controlling the glucose level in these patients may minimize the size of a stroke.

Patients who have suffered a transient ischemic attacks, the patient may be discharged with blood pressure and cholesterol medications even if the blood pressure and cholesterol levels are within acceptable levels. Smoking cessation is mandatory.


When a patient is no longer acutely ill after a stroke, the health care staff focuses on maximizing the individuals functional abilities. This is most often done in an inpatient rehabilitation hospital or in a special area of a general hospital. Rehabilitation can also take place at a nursing facility.

The rehabilitation process can include some or all of the following :

speech therapy to relearn talking and swallowing;
occupational therapy to regain as much function dexterity in the arms and hands as possible;
physical therapy to improve strength and walking; and
family education to orient them in caring for their loved one at home and the challenges they will face.

The goal is for the patient to resume as many, if not all, of their pre-stroke activities and functions. Since a stroke involves the permanent loss of brain cells, a total return to the patient's pre-stroke status is not necessarily a realistic goal in many cases. However, many stroke patients can return to vibrant independent lives.

Depending upon the severity of the stroke, some patients are transferred from the acute care hospital setting to a skilled nursing facility to be monitored and continue physical and occupational therapy.

Many times, home health providers can assess the home living situation and make recommendations to ease the transition home. Unfortunately, some stroke patients have such significant nursing needs that they cannot be met by relatives and friends and long-term nursing home care may be required.

Biography of Madeleine Leininger

Madeleine Leininger (13 July 1925 in Sutton, Nebraska, U.S.) is a pioneeringnursing theorist, first published in 1961. Her contributions to nursing theory involve the discussion of what it is to care. Most notably, she developed the concept oftranscultural nursing, bringing the role of cultural factors in nursing practice into the discussion of how to best attend to those in need of nursing care.

Dr. Madeline Leininger is the founder of the transcultural nursing movement and is one of nursing's most prolific writers. She developed the ethnonursing research model and is the field's authority on cultural care.
The cultural care theory aims to provide culturally congruent nursing care through "cognitively based assistive, supportive, facilitative, or enabling acts or decisions that are mostly tailor-made to fit with individual, group's, or institution's cultural values, beliefs, and lifeways" (Leininger, M. M. (1995). Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories,research & practices. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc.5, p.75) This care is intended to fit with or have beneficial meaning and health outcomes for people of different or similar cultural backgrounds.

DORTHEA OREM SCDNT(Self Care Deficit Nursing Theory)

DORTHEA OREM SCDNT(Self Care Deficit Nursing Theory)

Self-care Deficit Nursing Theory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The self-care deficit nursing theory is a grand nursing theory that was developed between 1959 and 2001 by Dorothea Orem. It is also known as the Orem model of nursing. It is particularly used in rehabilitation and primary care settings where the patient is encouraged to be as independent as possible.

Central philosophy

The nursing theory is based upon the philosophy that all "patients wish to care for themselves". They can recover more quickly and holistically if they are allowed to perform their own self-cares to the best of their ability.

Self-care requisites

Self-care requisites are groups of needs or requirements that Orem identified. They are classified as either:
  • Universal self-care requisites - those needs that all people have
  • Developmental self-care requisites - 1. maturational: progress toward higher level of maturation. 2. situational: prevention of deleterious effects related to development.
  • Health deviation requisites - those needs that arise as a result of a patient's condition

Self-care deficits

When an individual is very unable to meet their own self-care requisites, a "self-care deficit" occurs. It is the job of the Registered Nurse to determine these deficits, and define a support modality.

Support modalities

Nurses are encouraged to rate their patient's dependencies or each of the self-care deficits on the following scale:
  • Total Compensation
  • Partial Compensation
  • Educative/Supportive

Universal Self-Care Requisites (SCRs)

The Universal self-care requisites that all or health are:
  • Air
  • Water
  • Food
  • Elimination
  • Activity and Rest
  • Solitude and Social Interaction
  • Hazard Prevention
  • Promotion of Normality
The nurse is encouraged to assign a support modality to each of the self-care requisites.

Example nursing assessment

This patient is entirely fictitious and any likeness to any person, alive or dead, is purely coincidental.
'J' is a 50-year-old male who has just been diagnosed with type-two diabetes mellitus. He has a history of hypertension, and is a chronic smoker, smoking around 30 cigarettes daily.
  • AIR: Educative/Supportive - Provide education on the risks associated with smoking particularly for the diabetic patient.
  • WATER: Educative/Supportive - Ensure access to adequate hydration - risk of polydipsia due to hyperglycaemia.
  • FOOD: Partial Compensation - Education and provision of a diet that is suitable for his new diagnosis of diabetes, blood sugar monitoring after meals.
  • ELIMINATION: Educative/Supportive - May require monitoring.
  • ACTIVITY AND REST: Educative/Supportive - Educate patient as to the benefits of cardiovascular exercise, especially for the diabetic
  • SOLITUDE AND SOCIAL INTERACTION: Partial Compensation - Nurses may provide social interaction as hospital admission will cause change is social behaviour and interactions.
  • HAZARD PREVENTION: Partial Compensation - Nurses will need to educate regarding the medication that he may be taking, and administer this medication initially. Particularly relevant if J is taking insulin injections.
  • PROMOTE NORMALITY: Partial Compensation - Nurses will need to facilitate a return to normal lifestyle. This will involve advocating for the patient in a multi-disciplinary team, in order to achieve a medication regime that will fit with the patient's life.

Source : wikipedia

Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Requisites

Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Requisites

Guest Author - Colleen Moore, RN

Dorothea Orem explains Universal Self-Care Requisites as all the things that are need by individuals, at all stages of life, to be able to care for ones self. Orem uses the self-care requisites as a basis for assessment the nursing process. To state it in an easy way to understand, she takes all the elements that need to be right for an individual to function wholly and independently and then works backward, identifying self-care deficits. Each component of the assessment is broken up into two parts, the health habits and the review of systems.

Air is the first of the self-care requisites. The assessment of air involves more than just the respiratory function. Orem believes that the inadequate air supply will result in the appearance of the skin, hair and nails. Obviously, the respiratory and cardiac function will need to be physically assessed but Orem wants you to think about how air effects the entire well-being of an individual. This is when the nurse should assess the patient’s lab values, such as CBC, Hgb and Hct since these labs reflect circulatory oxygenation of the patient. Does the patient have a history of smoking or asthma? This would be a good time to ask these questions.

Water is the next of the self-care requisites. The nurse would assess for a fluid overload or deficit. Skin turgor, edema, lung sound would be all part of the physical assessment for any deficits. Does the patient have a history of CHF or urinary retention? Has the patient had any significant weight gain or loss that was not planned? Important questions to ask while assessing water self-care requisites.

Food is another self-care requisite that Orem recognizes. The examiner would assess dietary needs, obesity, and malnutrition. A significant weight loss or gain is important. It is vital to obtain a dietary history, is it healthy or poor? Many times economic status has a lot to do with dietary habits. A physical examine would include the abdomen, bowel habits, the patient’s mouth; the tongue for thickness, the teeth for erosion and breakage, the gums for bleeding and swelling and the breath for halitosis. Does the patient have a history of ETOH, ulcers or gastro-intestinal bleeding?

Elimination is the next requisite. What is the patient’s elimination pattern? Is there a history of blood in the stool? Does the patient have chronic constipation or diarrhea? Has the patient had bowel surgery or removal of their gallbladder? Physical assessment would include bowel sounds, pelvic tenderness, and bloating. Dietary habits would be important to assess at this point, too.

Activity and rest requisites are the next requisites that Orem examines. Physical assessment would include mentation and activities of daily living. Does the patient have a steady gaite? Does the patient live alone? Neurological assessment should be done at this time. Review sleep patterns, muscle tone, and peripheral vascular disease.

Solitude and social interaction are addressed next. Is the patient isolated or do they have family and friends who visit? This is the time to assess for depression and suicidal ideations. Assess for hearing problems, sight problems and physical limitations. This is a good time to discuss menstruation and PMS with female patients, along with pregnancy history. This is the place when you want to ask the patient about their sex life. Nurses need to remember just because someone is 85 years old that a sexual relationship and intimacy can be very important. We are all sexual beings, we need to remember that when we are treating our patients.

Hazards to human life, human functioning and human well-being is the e next requisite. This would include any bad behaviors such as alcohol and drug abuse. Also, difficulty ambulating in the home, living alone without transportation both can lead to hazards.

The last self-care requisite is normalcy. Normalcy is very difficult to interpret because we all have our own definition of what is normal. Orem feels this is how the individual reacts to illness, obsession or apathy or how the patient perceives their relationship to the world and others around them. Is the patient attention seeking, in counseling, deal appropriately with stress and anxiety?

As you may have noticed many of these Universal Self-Care requisites overlap in the assessment process. Dorothea Orem meant for that to happen because for an individual to be completely healthy all of these requisites must be fulfilled.

Next week will be the continuation of Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Requisite Theory where we will discuss Self-Care Deficits and Developmental Self-Care Requisites.

Source :