Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit. It occasionally precedes vomiting. A person can suffer nausea without vomiting. When prolonged, it is a debilitating symptom.

Nausea is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes. Some common cause of nausea are motion sickness, dizziness, migraine, fainting, gastroenteritis (stomach infection) or food poisoning. Nausea is a side effect of many medications including chemotherapy, nauseants or morning sickness in early pregnancy. Nausea may also be caused by anxiety, disgust and depression.

Vomiting , also known as emesis, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation. The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea, which often precedes, but does not always lead to, vomiting. Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting. In severe cases, where dehydration develops, intravenous fluid may be required.

Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Nausea and Vomiting

1. Nausea related to various causes

The desired result :
  • Patients expressed no nausea and vomiting.
  • Odor-free environment, clean so it does not cause nausea.

Interventions :
  • Give anti- emetic.
  • Oral care, to reduce emesis and increased comfort.
  • Explained to the patient to avoid foods that cause or may cause vomiting.

2. Risk for aspiration related to decreased reflexes or penuruanan awareness

The desired result :
  • Airway and lung sounds clean.

Iintervention :
  • Assess whether the patient is in the risk for aspiration.
  • Place the patient in a position to prevent aspiration.

3. Deficient Fluid Volume

The desired result :
  • Patient's vital signs within normal limits.
Interventions :
  • Monitor for signs of hypovolemia to prevent any complications that may occur.
  • Measure body weight each day.
  • Monitor intake output, and vital signs.
  • Give fluids by IV.
  • Discharge monitoring during treatment to prevent deficit and excess fluid.

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