Avoiding Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus or Type 2 Diabetes is the metabolic condition where the body is unable to properly metabolize glucose levels in the bloodstream. This is due to the low levels of or absence of the hormone insulin. Insulin helps cells change blood glucose into building blocks for cellular regeneration and operations. The absence of these building blocks would result in cellular death leading to organ malfunction and even failure.

One of the major causes attributing to the development of the condition known as diabetes mellitus is being overweight. Being overweight means that the individual consumes more food than what is used up, making the body store fat. This fat adds on to weight, leading to many complications. Furthermore, the lack of activity that burns up the fat would hamper the normal functioning of many organs in the body. The kind of food an individual ingests is important to determine if the individual would eventually contract the condition known as Type 2 diabetes. Many overweight individuals do not realize that they are living with diabetes until it is too late and complications arise.

The first step to determine if an individual who is overweight may have developed or is at the cusp of developing diabetes mellitus would be the following:

a) Excessive urination or thirst and hunger;

b) Overall weakness, fatigue and irritability;

c) Tingling in the extremities or numbness in the same areas;

d) Slow recovery and recuperation from cuts and/or bruising;

e) Frequency in contracting infection or having itchy skin

Once these are experienced by an individual, one needs to have their blood sugar checked. This is done with a simple blood test after fasting to determine the amount of glucose present in their bloodstream. Once this test is performed, it can be conclusively determined if the individual has diabetes mellitus or is pre-diabetic. Being pre-diabetic means that the blood sugar levels are at borderline diabetes levels.

In order to counteract this, an individual needs to undergo a two-pronged process. The first step to be undertaken would be for the overweight individual to lose weight. This can be done by changing dietary habits from fattening food to healthier cuisines. Together with this dietary modification would be undergoing an exercise regimen designed to help the individual lose weight. Aside from the major lifestyle change, one needs to be prescribed the appropriate diabetes medication to manage the disease from running its course and ravage the individual.

Living with diabetes mellitus is not an easy life to live. Major medical problems arise as complications from diabetes mellitus, some may include cardiovascular issues, kidney problems and a whole lot more. One of the major causes of diabetes mellitus is being overweight. Thus to avoid developing this dreaded disease, one needs to have a healthy diet and lifestyle each day. Regularly, one also needs to have their blood checked to determine their blood glucose levels. Once these are done, then preventing the development of this disease can be done and one can live a longer, fuller and healthier life in the long run.

By Bobby Castro

Things To Know About Diabetic Foot Ulcers

A diabetic with a well-advanced condition often suffers from foot and leg ulcers. One of the complications arising from diabetes is neuropathy or a loss of sensation and circulation to the extremities of the body. When the foot or hand is cut or is wounded and are left untreated, there is a resulting infection that is often a precursor to other problems. These untreated ulcers can lead to blood poisoning because of necrosis and sepsis, leaving amputation as the only available treatment to control the spread of the infection.

Treatment of foot ulcers exacerbated by diabetes requires special care and attention. The following are the things to know about diabetic foot ulcers.

Keep Feet Clean. Always wash your feet with warm water and mild soap. Feet come in contact with many kinds of dangerous bacteria and germs everyday. Keeping these body parts clean especially at the end of the day can help prevent foot ulcers made worse by diabetes.

Consult Physicians Regularly. With diabetes, close coordination with doctors regarding not only your blood sugar levels but also other possible complications that may arise. Checking on ulcers, be it neurotrophic, arterial and venous in the extremities need to be done every so often to prevent any foot ulcers from developing. When one is found, depending on the kind of ulcer, there may be different kinds of treatments that would be needed to manage the complication.

Preventive Treatment. When an ulcer is found, the doctor may prescribe anti-platelet or anti-clotting medication to prevent any ulcers due to blood clots from arising. To prevent ulcer development, it is best to apply compression garments to apply consistent pressure to promote good circulation. Good circulation helps blood flow to bring nutrient rich blood and remove wastes from the area to assist the body heal itself.

Dressing and Care. Do follow instructions provided by your physician regarding the dressing and care for a foot ulcer. The methodology may employ antiseptics, wet-to-wet, synthetic skin bandages of either hydrogel, hydrocolloid or alginate wraps. Dressing the wound is important to keep infection from further complicating the healing process of the diabetic.

Preventive Care. Often, foot ulcers result from ill-fitting shoes as well as other agents. Special shoes and proper hygiene together with application of antibiotic creams, aloe vera or topical treatment to the area of infection can help remove possible infectious agents. When there are white, yellow, green or black areas in the foot area need to be reported to a physician at the soonest possible time.

Following these simple advisories can help prevent the development of dreaded foot ulcers. An ounce of prevention truly weighs more than a pound of cure.

By Bobby Castro

Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit. It occasionally precedes vomiting. A person can suffer nausea without vomiting. When prolonged, it is a debilitating symptom.

Nausea is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes. Some common cause of nausea are motion sickness, dizziness, migraine, fainting, gastroenteritis (stomach infection) or food poisoning. Nausea is a side effect of many medications including chemotherapy, nauseants or morning sickness in early pregnancy. Nausea may also be caused by anxiety, disgust and depression.

Vomiting , also known as emesis, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation. The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea, which often precedes, but does not always lead to, vomiting. Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting. In severe cases, where dehydration develops, intravenous fluid may be required.

Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Nausea and Vomiting

1. Nausea related to various causes

The desired result :
  • Patients expressed no nausea and vomiting.
  • Odor-free environment, clean so it does not cause nausea.

Interventions :
  • Give anti- emetic.
  • Oral care, to reduce emesis and increased comfort.
  • Explained to the patient to avoid foods that cause or may cause vomiting.

2. Risk for aspiration related to decreased reflexes or penuruanan awareness

The desired result :
  • Airway and lung sounds clean.

Iintervention :
  • Assess whether the patient is in the risk for aspiration.
  • Place the patient in a position to prevent aspiration.

3. Deficient Fluid Volume

The desired result :
  • Patient's vital signs within normal limits.
Interventions :
  • Monitor for signs of hypovolemia to prevent any complications that may occur.
  • Measure body weight each day.
  • Monitor intake output, and vital signs.
  • Give fluids by IV.
  • Discharge monitoring during treatment to prevent deficit and excess fluid.

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Nursing Care Plan for Hypertensive Heart Disease : Acute Pain

Hypertensive heart disease includes a number of complications of high blood pressure that affect the heart. While there are several definitions of hypertensive heart disease in the medical literature, the term is most widely used in the context of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding categories. The definition includes heart failure and other cardiac complications of hypertension when a causal relationship between the heart disease and hypertension is stated or implied on the death certificate.

The symptoms and signs of hypertensive heart disease will depend on whether or not it is accompanied by heart failure. In the absence of heart failure, hypertension, with or without enlargement of the heart (left ventricular hypertrophy) is usually symptomless. Symptoms and signs of chronic heart failure can include:
  •     Fatigue
  •     Irregular pulse or palpitations
  •     Swelling of feet and ankles
  •     Weight gain
  •     Nausea
  •     Shortness of breath
  •     Difficulty sleeping flat in bed (orthopnea)
  •     Bloating and abdominal pain
  •     Greater need to urinate at night
  •     An enlarged heart (cardiomegaly)
Patients can present acutely with heart failure and pulmonary edema due to sudden failure of pump function of the heart. Acute heart failure can be precipitated by a variety of causes including myocardial ischemia, marked increases in blood pressure, or cardiac dysrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation. Alternatively heart failure can develop insidiously over time.(wikipedia).

Nursing Care Plan for Hypertensive Heart Disease : Acute Pain

Acute Pain (headache) related to increased cerebral vascular pressure.

Goal :

    Client reported pain / discomfort disappeared / controlled .

Interventions and Rationale :

1. Maintain bed rest during the acute phase.

2. Give non-pharmacological measures to eliminate headaches eg, a cold compress on the forehead, back and neck massage, quiet, dim the room lights room lights, relaxation techniques (manual imagination, disktraksi) and leisure time activities.

3. Eliminate / minimize vasoconstriction activity that can increase headache eg, straining during defecation, coughing and bending length.

4. Assist patients in ambulation as needed.

5. Give liquids, soft foods, regular oral care in the event of bleeding nose or nasal pack has been done to stop the bleeding.


1. Minimize stimulation / promote relaxation.

2. Actions that reduce cerebral vascular pressure and the slow / block sympathetic response is effective in relieving headaches and complications.

3. Activities that increase vasoconstriction causing headaches in an increase in cerebral vascular pressure.

4. Dizziness and blurred vision often associated with pain kepala.pasien can also experience episodes of postural hypotension.

5. Increase the general comfort, compress the nose can interfere with swallowing or breathing requires mouth, causing stagnation oral secretions and mucous membranes dry out.

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