Orem’s general theory of nursing in three related parts:-

  • Theory of self care
  • Theory of self care deficit
  • Theory of nursing system

A. Theory of Self Care

This theory Includes:

  • Self care – practice of activities that individual initiates and perform on their own behalf in maintaining life ,health and well being
  • Self care agency – is a human ability which is "the ability for engaging in self care" -conditioned by age developmental state, life experience sociocultural orientation health and available resources
  • Therapeutic self care demand – "totality of self care actions to be performed for some duration in order to meet self care requisites by using valid methods and related sets of operations and actions"
  • Self care requisites-action directed towards provision of self care. 3 categories of self care requisites are-

1. Universal

  • Developmental
  • Health deviation

2. Universal self care requisites

  • Associated with life processes and the maintenance of the integrity of human structure and functioning
  • Common to all , ADL
  • Identifies these requisites as:
  • Maintenance of sufficient intake of air ,water, food
  • Provision of care assoc with elimination process
  • Balance between activity and rest, between solitude and social interaction
  • Prevention of hazards to human life well being and
  • Promotion of human functioning

3. Developmental self care requisites

  • Associated with developmental processes/ derived from a condition…. Or associated with an event
    • E.g. adjusting to a new job
    • adjusting to body changes
  • Health deviation self care
    • Required in conditions of illness, injury, or disease .these include:--
    • Seeking and securing appropriate medical assistance
    • Being aware of and attending to the effects and results of pathologic conditions
    • Effectively carrying out medically prescribed measures
    • Modifying self concepts in accepting oneself as being in a particular state of health and in specific forms of health care
    • Learning to live with effects of pathologic conditions

B. Theory of self care deficit

  • Specifies when nursing is needed
  • Nursing is required when an adult (or in the case of a dependent, the parent) is incapable or limited in the provision of continuous effective self care. Orem identifies 5 methods of helping:
    • Acting for and doing for others
    • Guiding others
    • Supporting another
    • Providing an environment promoting personal development in relation to meet future demands
    • Teaching another

C. Theory of Nursing Systems

  • Describes how the patient’s self care needs will be met by the nurse , the patient, or both
  • Identifies 3 classifications of nursing system to meet the self care requisites of the patient:-
  • Wholly compensatory system
  • Partly compensatory system
  • Supportive – educative system
  • Design and elements of nursing system define
  • Scope of nursing responsibility in health care situations
  • General and specific roles of nurses and patients
  • Reasons for nurses’ relationship with patients and
  • The kinds of actions to be performed and the performance patterns and nurses’ and patients’ actions in regulating patients’ self care agency and in meeting their self care demand
  • Orem recognized that specialized technologies are usually developed by members of the health profession
  • A technology is systematized information about a process or a method for affecting some desired result through deliberate practical endeavor ,with or without use of materials or instruments

Source : currentnursing.com